Entire Bibliography (487 entries)

This bibliography has been compiled by Kathy Martin, assisted by interns (Science Horizons, NSERC Undergraduate Assistants). Please e-mail any additions to the bibliography to Marty.

Aber, J., et al. (2000). Applying Ecological Principles to Management of the U.S. National Forests., Ecological Society of America. p. 20.

Airola, D.A. and R.H. Barrett (1985). Foraging and habitat relationships of insect-gleaning birds in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest. Condor, 87: 205-216.

Allee, W.C. and K.P. Schmidt (1951). The Bergmann Rule, in Ecological Animal Geography, W.C. Allee and K.P. Schmidt, Editors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York.

Allee, W.C. and K.P. Schmidt (1951). Alpine Animals, in Ecological Animal Geography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York.

Allee, W.C. and K.P. Schmidt (1951). Alpine fresh-water communities, in Ecological Animal Geography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York. p. 435-437.

Amato, S. and P. Pedrini (1995). Migrations of birds across the Alpine areas (Trentino): activity carried on in 1993, in Le migrazioni degli uccelli attraverso le Alpi centro-meridionali (Trentino): attività svolta nel 1993., Centro di Ecologia Alpina.

Ammon, E.M. (1995). Reproductive strategies and factors determining nest success in subalpine ground-nesting passerines., University of Colorado.

Andersen, D.C. and K.B. Armitage (1976). Caloric content of Rocky Mountain subalpine and alpine plants. Journal of Range Management, 29(4): 344-345.

Andersen, R., H.C. Pedersen, and J.B. Steen (1986). Annual variation in movements of sub-alpine hatched Willow Ptarmigan Lagopus l. lagopus broods in Central Norway. Ornis Scandinavica, 17(2): 180-182.

Andreev, A.V. (1999). Energetics and survival of birds in extreme environments. Ostrich, 1: 13-22.

Antor, R.J. (1995). The importance of arthropod fallout for the foraging of high-alpine birds. Journal of Avian Biology, 26(1): 81-85.

Armitage, K.B. (1975). Social behavior and population dynamics of marmots. Oikos, 26: 341-354.

Armitage, K.B. (1986). Individuality, social behavior and reproductive success in Yellow-bellied marmots. Ecology, 67(5): 1186-1193.

Armitage, K.B. (1999). Evolution of sociality in marmots. Journal of Mammalogy, 80(1): 1-10.

Armitage, K.B. and J.F. Downhower (1974). Demography of Yellow-bellied Marmot populations.Ecology, 55: 1233-1245.

Arno, S.F. and R.P. Hammerley (1984). General Factors: Topography, in Timberline – Mountain and Arctic forest frontiers, S.F. Arno and R.P. Hammerley, Editors. The Mountaineers: Seattle. p. 24-56.

Arnold, W. (1990). The evolution of marmot sociality: I. Why disperse late?Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 27: 229-237.

Arnold, W. (1990). The evolution of marmot sociality: II. Costs and benefits of joint hibernation.Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 27: 239-246.

Arnold, W. (1993). Social evolution in marmots and the adaptive value of joint hibernation [Soziale Evolution bei Murmeltieren und der Anpassungswert gemeinschaftlicher Überwinterung]. Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges., 86(2): 79-93.

Arnold, W. (1993). Energetics of social hibernation, in Life in the Cold: Ecological, Physiological, and Molecular Mechanisms, C. Carey, et al., Editors. Westview Press: Boulder, CO. p. 65-80.

Arnold, W. and J. Dittami (1997). Reproductive suppression in male alpine marmots. Animal Behaviour, 53: 53-66.

Arnold, W., et al. (1991). Ambient temperatures in hibernacula and their energetic consequences for alpine marmots (Marmota marmota). Journal of Thermal Biology, 16(4): 223-226.

Arnold, W., et al. (1994). Molecular analysis of the mating system of alpine marmots (Marmota marmota). Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges., 86: 27.

Arnold, W. and A.V. Lichtenstein (1993). Ectoparasite loads decrease the fitness of alpine marmots (Marmota marmota) but are not a cost of sociality. Behavioral Ecology, 4(1): 36-39.

Artiss, T., W.M. Hochachka, and K. Martin (1999). Female foraging and male vigilance in white-tailed ptarmigan (Ptarmigan leucurus ): opportunism or behavioural coordination? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 46: 429-434.

Artiss, T. and K. Martin (1995). Male vigilance in white-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucurus: mate guarding or predator detection? Animal Behavior, 49: 1249-1258.

Artiss, T.A. (1992). Male vigilance and mate guarding in the White-Tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus)., University of Toronto.

Auld, H. (1996).Dealing with weather extremes and climate variability. in Ecosystem effects of atmospheric change. Pointe Claire.

Aulie, A.S., J.B. (1976). Thermoregulation and muscular development in cold exposed Willow Ptarmigan chicks (Lagopus lagopus L.). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 55: 291-293.

Badyaev, A.V. (1997). Avian life history variation along altitudinal gradients: an example with cardueline finches. Oecologia, 111: 365-374.

Badyaev, A.V. (1997). Altitudinal variation in sexual dimorphism: a new pattern and alternative hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology, 8(6): 675-690.

Bailey, F.M. (1923). Birds recorded from the Santa Rita Mountains in southern Arizona. Pacific Coast Avifauna, 15.

Baker, W.L. (1983). Alpine vegetation of Wheeler Peak, New Mexico, U.S.A.: Gradient analysis, classification and biogeography. Arctic and Alpine Research, 15(2): 223-240.

Baker, W.L. and T.T. Veblen (1990). Spruce beetles and fires in the nineteenth-century subalpine forests of Western Colorado, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 22(1): 65-80.

Banfield, A.W.F. (1953). Notes on the birds of Kluane Game Sanctuary, Yukon Territory. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 67: 177-178.

Barry, T.W. (1962). Effects of late seasons on Atlantic Brant reproduction. Journal of Wildlife Management, 26(1): 19-26.

Bears, H. (2002). How and Why a Small Songbird, the Oregon Junco (juncus hyemalis oregenus), Breeds Over a Steep Elevation Gradient: Shifting Life-Histories, Adaptations, and Costs and Benefits with Elevation, in Zoology., University of British Columbia: Vancouver. p. 59.

Bears, H., J.N.M. Smith, and J.C. Wingfield (2002). Adrenocortical Sensitivity in Oregon Juncos (Juncus hyemalis oregonus) Breeding in Low and High Elevation Habitat. Submitted to Ecoscience,: 25.

Beebee, T.J.C. (1995). Amphibian breeding and climate. Nature, 374.

Beedy, E.C. (1981). Bird communities and forest structure in the Sierra Nevada of California.Condor, 83(2): 97-105.

Behle, W.H. (Distribution and variation of the Horned Larks (Otocoris alpestris) of western North America. University of California Publications in Zoology.

Behle, W.H. and J. Ghiselin (1958). Additional data on the birds of the Uinta Mountains and basin of northeastern Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist, 18(1): 1-25.

Bejer, B. and M. Rudemo (1985). Fluctuations of tits (Paridae) in Denmark and their relations to winter food and climate. Ornis Scandinavica, 16: 29-37.

Beniston, M. and D.G. Fox (1996). Impacts of climate change on mountain regions, in Climate Change 1995. Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses., R.T. Watson, M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss, Editors. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. p. 95-129.

Bernard-Laurent, A. and J.L. Laurent (1984). Method of censusing rock ptarmigan in spring; applications in the maritime alps. [Methode de recensement des perdrix bartavelles (Alectoris graeca saxatilis Bechstein 1805) au printemps; applications dans les alpes-maritimes]. Giber Faune Sauvage, (4): 69-85.

Billings, W.D. (1979). Alpine ecosystems of western North America, in Special Management Needs of Alpine Ecosystems, D.A. Johnson, Editor. Society for Range Management: Denver. p. 7-20.

Billings, W.D. (1989). Alpine Vegetation, in Terrestrial Vegetation of North America, W.D. Billings and R.K. Peet, Editors. Paragon Books. p. 392-420.

Billings, W.D. and L.C. Bliss (1959). An alpine snowbank environment and its effects on vegetation, plant development, and productivity. Ecology, 40(3): 388-397.

Billings, W.D. and H.A. Mooney (1968). The ecology of arctic and alpine plants. Biological Review, 43: 481-529.

Blais, J.M., et al. (1998). Accumulation of persistent organochlorine compounds in mountains of western Canada. Nature, 395: 585-588.

Bliss, L.C. (1956). A comparison of plant development in microenvironments of arctic and alpine tundras. Ecological Monographs, 26(4): 303-337.

Blumstein, D.T. and W. Arnold (1995). Situational specificity in alpine-marmot alarm communication.Ethology, 100: 1-13.

Blumstein, D.T. and W. Arnold (1998). Ecology and social behavior of golden marmots (Marmota caudata aurea). Journal of Mammalogy, 79: 873-886.

Böhm, C. and A. Landmann (1995). Nest-site selection, and nest construction in the water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). Journal für Ornithologie, 136(1): 1-16.

Bollmann, K. and H.-U. Reyer (2001). Reproductive success of water pipits in an alpine environment. The Condor, 103: 510-520.

Bonavita, P., et al. (1998). Biodiversity and stress level in four forests of the Italian Alps.Chemosphere, 36(4-5): 1055-1060.

Booth, E.S. (1952). Ecological distribution of the birds of the Blue Mountains region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon, in Walla Walla College publications of the Department of Biological Sciences and the Biological Station., Walla Walla College. p. 65-107.

Boscolo, M., J. Buongiorno, and T. Panayotou (1997). Simulating options for carbon sequestration through improved management of a lowland tropical rainforest. Environment and Developmental Economics, 2: 241-263.

Bowman, W.D., et al. (1993). Constraints of nutrient availability on primary production in two alpine tundra communities. Ecology, 74(7): 2085-2097.

Brace, S. and D.L. Peterson (1998). Spatial patterns of the tropospheric ozone in the Mount Ranier region of the Cascade Mountains, U.S.A. Atmospheric Environment, 32(21): 3629-3637.

Braun, C., et al. (1974). Characteristics and Migration of Wintering Populations of Colorado White-tailed Ptarmigan., State of Colorado, Division of Wildlife.

Braun, C.E. (1969). Population dynamics, habitat and movements of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado, in Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology., Colorado State University: Fort Collins. p. 189 pp.

Braun, C.E. (1971). Habitat requirements of Colorado White-tailed Ptarmigan. Proceedings of the Western Association State Game Fish Commission, 51: 1-9.

Braun, C.E. (1980). Alpine bird communities of western North America: implications for management and research, in Workshop Proceedings: Management of western forests and grasslands for nongame birds., R.M. DeGraff and N.G. Tilghman, Editors. U.S.D.A. Forest Service General Technical Report INT-86. p. 280-291.

Braun, C.E. (1984). Biological investigations of white-tailed ptarmigan in Colorado, U.S.A.- a review, in 3rd International Symposium of the world Pheasant Association, P.J. Hudson and T.W.I. Lovel, Editors: York, U. K. p. 131-147.

Braun, C.E., R.W. Hoffman, and G.E. Rogers (1976). Wintering areas and winter ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado., Colorado Division of Wildlife.

Braun, C.E., K. Martin, and L.A. Robb (1993). White-tailed Ptarmigan, in The Birds of North America, A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Editors. The Academy of Natural Sciences; The American Ornithologists Union: Philadelphia; Washington, DC. p. 24.

Braun, C.E. and T.A. May (1972).Colorado alpine tundra avifaunal investigations, 1966-71. in 1972 Tundra Biome Symposium. Lake Wilderness Center, University of Washington.

Braun, C.E., D.H. Nish, and K.M. Giesen (1978). Release and establishment of white-tailed ptarmigan in Utah. The Southwestern Naturalist, 23(4): 661-668.

Braun, C.E. and C.E. Rogers (1967). Determination of age and sex of the southern White-tailed Ptarmigan. 54.

Braun, C.E. and G.E. Rogers (1971). The White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado., State of Colorado, Division of Game, Fish and Parks.

Braun, C.E. and R.K. Schmidt (1971).Effects of snow and wind on wintering populations of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado. in Proc. Snow and Ice Symp. Iowa State Univerisity, Ames.

Braun, C.E., et al. (1991). Elk, white-tailed Ptarmigan and willow relationships: A management dilemma in Rocky Mountain National Park. Transactions of the 56th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference,: 74-84.

Breitenmoser, U. (1998). Large predators in the Alps: the rise and fall of man’s competitors.Biological Conservation, 83(3): 279-289.

Brenot, J.F. and C. Novoa (1999). Demographic study of Rock Ptarmigan in the Pyrenees [Etude demographique du lagopede alpin dans les Pyrenees]., Office National de la Chasse, France. p. 19 pp.

Brett, R.B., K. Klinka, and H. Qian (1998). Classification of High-Elevation Non-Forested Plant Communities in Coastal British Columbia., Forest Science Dept., University of British Columbia: Vancouver. p. 58.

Brink, B. and K. Fletcher (1994). Serpentine Soils. Cordillera,: 16-19.

Bronson, M.T. (1979). Altitudinal variation in the life history of the golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis). Ecology, 60(2): 272-279.

Brown, J.H. (1971). Mammals on mountaintops: nonequilibrium insular biogeography. The American Naturalist, 105(945): 467-478.

Brown, J.H. and J. Roughgarden (1989). U.S. ecologists addesss global change.Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 4(9): 255-256.

Brown, J.L. and S. Li (1996). Delayed effect of monsoon rains influences laying date of a passerine bird living in an arid environment. Condor, 98: 879-884.

Brown, J.L., S.-H. Li, and N. Bhagabati (1999). Long-term trend toward earlier breeding in an American bird: a response to global warming. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA, 96: 5565-5569.

Bruderer, B. (1982). Do migrating birds fly along straight lines?, in Avian Migration, F.a.W. Papi, H.G., Editor. Springer: Heidelberg. p. 3-14.

Bryant, A.A. and D.W. Janz (1996). Distribution and abundance of Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74(4): 667-677.

Bullard, R.W. (1972). Vertebrates at Altitudes, in Physiological Adaptations: Desert and Mountain, M.K. Yousef, S.M. Horvath, and R.W. Bullard, Editors. Academic Press, Inc: New York. p. 209-225.

Burton, J.F. (1995). Birds and Climate Change. London: Christopher Helm.

Byrkjedal, I. (1980). Nest predation in relation to snow cover – a possible factor influencing the start of breeding in shore birds. Ornis Scandinavica, 11: 249-252.

Caizergues, A. and L.N. Ellison (2000). Age-specific reproductive performance of Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix females. Bird Study, 47: 344-351.

Calder, W.A. (1987). Southbound through Colorado: Migration of Rufous Hummingbirds.National Geographic Research, 3(1): 40-51.

Campbell, I.M. (1989). Does climate affect host-plant quality? Annual variation in the quality of balsam fir as food for spruce budworm. Oecologia, 81: 341-344.

Campbell, V.E. (1995). Patterns of nest predation and nest predator abundance in a fragmented englemann spruce/subalpine fir forest., British Coumbia. p. 42.

Capula, M., L. Luiselli, and C. Anibaldi (1992). Complementary study on the reproductive biology in female adder, Vipera berus (L.), from eastern Italian Alps. Vie Milieu, 42(3-4): 327-336.

Carey, C. (1980). Adaptation of the avian egg to high altitude. American Zoologist, 20: 449-459.

Carey, C. (1986). Avian Reproduction in Cold Climates. Proc. 19th Int. Ornithol. Congr., 14: 2708-2715.

Carey, C. and W.R. Dawson Symposium 48. Adaptations of Birds to Cold Climates.

Carey, C., et al. (1989). Variation in eggshell characteristics and gas exchange of montane and lowland coot eggs. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 159: 389-400.

Carey, C. and K. Martin (1991). Physiological properties of montane and lowland ptarmigan embryos. American Zoologist, 31: 73A.

Carey, C. and K. Martin (1997). Physiological ecology of incubation of ptarmigan eggs at high and low altitudes. Wildlife Biology, 3(3/4): 211-218.

Carey, C. and M.L. Morton (1976). Aspects of circulatory physiology of montane and lowland birds.Comparative Biochemical Physiology, 54: 61-74.

Carey, C., et al. (1982). Avian reproduction over an altitudinal gradient: incubation period, hatchling mass, and embryonic oxygen consumption.The Auk, 99(4): 710-718.

Casazza, M.L., et al. (2000). Development of reliable population indices for Band-tailed Pigeons., USGS.

Cattadori, I.M. and P.J. Hudson (1999). Temporal dynamics of grouse populations at the southern edge of their distribution. Ecography, 22: 374-383.

Centre, C.C. (1988). Recommendations on immediate actions to address the climate change – forest impact issue in Canada., Atmospheric Environment Service and Canadian Forest Service.

Chambers, J.C. (1995). Relationships between seed fates and seedling establishment in an alpine ecosystem. Ecology, 76(7): 2124-2133.

Chapin, F.S. and C. Korner (1994). Arctic and alpine biodiversity: patterns, causes and ecosystem consequences. TREE, 9(2): 45-47.

Chemini, C., et al. (1997). Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Trentino, Italian Alps. Parassitologia, 39: 59-63.

Choate, T.S. (1963). Habitat and population dynamics of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management, 27: 684-699.

Choate, T.S. (1963). Ecology and population dynamics of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in Glacier National Park, Montana., Montana State University, Missoula, Montana.

Clark, J.S. (1988). Effect of climate change on fire regimes in northwestern Minnesota. Nature, 334: 233-235.

Clarke, C.H.D. and I.M. Cowan (1945). Birds of Banff National Park, Alberta. The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 59: 83-103.

Clarke, J.A. (1988).Foraging strategies of white-tailed ptarmigan. in Animal Behaviour Society Meeting. Missaula, Montana.

Clarke, J.A. and R.E. Johnson (1992). The influence of spring snowpack on white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) breeding success, spacing and movement in the Sierra Nevada. Condor, 94: 622-627.

Clemens, D.T. (1988). Ventilation and oxygen consumption in rosy finches and house finches at sea level and high altitude. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 158: 57-66.

Cody, M.L. (1981). Habitat selection in birds: the roles of vegetation structure, competitors, and productivity. Bioscience, 31(2): 107-113.

Cody, M.L. (1985). Habitat selection in grassland and open-country birds, in Habitat Selection in Birds, M.L. Cody, Editor. Academic Press, Inc. (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers): London. p. 191-226.

Cooper, J.M. (1994). Mobbing of a Common Raven by migrant Rosy-finches. British Columbia Birds, 4: 13-14.

Cooper, S.M. and D.L. Peterson (2000). Spatial distribution of tropospheric ozone in western Washington, USA. Environmental Pollution, 107: 339-347.

Côté, S.D. (1996). Mountain goat responses to helicopter disturbance.Wildlife Society Bulletin, 24(4): 681-685.

Cotter, R.C. (1999). The reproductive biology of Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) in the central Canadian Arctic. Arctic, 52(1): 23-32.

Crick, H.Q.P., et al. (1997). UK birds are laying eggs earlier. Nature, 388: 526.

Crick, H.Q.P. and T.H. Sparks (1999). Climate change related to egg-laying trends. Nature, 399: 423-424.

Crisafulli, C.M. and C.P. Hawkins (1998). Ecosystem recovery following a catastrophic disturbance: lessons learned from Mount St. Helens, in Status and Trends of The Nation’s Biological Resources, M.J. Mac, et al., Editors. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey: Reston, VA. p. 23-35.

Curtin, C.G. (1995). Can montane landscapes recover from human disturbance? Long-term evidence from disturbed subalpine communities. Biological Conservation, 74: 49-55.

Cwynar, L.C. (1987). Fire and the forest history of the North Cascade range.Ecology, 68(4): 791-802.

Czajkowski, C. (1997). Nuts to you, neighbour. Discovery, (summer 1997): 16-19.

Daily, G.C., P.R. Ehrlich, and N.M. Haddad (1993). Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 90: 592-594.

Daubenmire, R. (1954). Alpine timberlines in the Americas and their interpretation. Butler University Botanical Studies, 11: 119-136.

Day, R.J. (1972). Stand structure, succession, and use of southern Alberta’s Rocky Mountain forest.Ecology, 53(3): 472-477.

De Franceschi, P. and M. Odasso (1998). Status of the rock partridge in two sample areas of the southern Trentino and management proposals, in [Status della coturnice in due aree campione del Trentino meridionale e proposte di gestione]., Centro di Ecologia Alpina.

Demaria, T. (1997). Microhabitat selection of white-tailed ptarmigan on vancouver island, B.C. Canada., Coastal Carolina University. p. 9.

DeSante, D.F. (1986). A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing method in a Sierran subalpine forest habitat. Condor, 88(2): 129-142.

DeSante, D.F. (1990). The role of recruitment in the dynamics of a Sierran subalpine bird community. The American Naturalist, 136(4): 429-445.

DesGranges, J.-L. (1996).Wildlife (evaluation of the vulnerability of Quebec’s breeding birds to climate change). in Ecosystem effects of atmospheric change. Pointe Claire, Quebec.

DeWolfe, B.B., G.C. West, and L.J. Peyton (1973). The spring migration of Gambel’s Sparrows through southern Yukon Territory. The Condor, 75(1): 43-59.

Dobson, A., A. Jolly, and D. Rubenstein (1989). The greenhouse effect and biological diversity.T.R.E.E., 4(3): 64-68.

Dobson, F.S., R.M. Zammuto, and J.O. Murie (1986). A comparison of methods for studying life history in Columbian ground squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy, 67(1): 154-158.

Donald, D.B., et al. (1998). Chlorobornanes in water, sediment, and fish from toxaphene treated and untreated lakes in western Canada. Environmental Science and Technology, 32(10): 1391-1397.

Douglas, G.W. and L.C. Bliss (1977). Alpine and high subalpine plant communities of the North Cascades Range, Washington and British Columbia. Ecological Monographs, 47: 113-150.

Dragon, S., et al. (1999). Effect of high altitude and in vivo adenosine/beta-adrenergic receptor blockade on ATP and 2,3BPG concentrations in red blood cells of avian embryos. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 202: 2787-2795.

Drews, F., et al. (1998). Diurnal behaviour budget of Ptarmigans Lagopus mutus helveticus (Thienemann 1829) in their summer habitat (Hohe Tauern, Austria) with remarks on anti-predator behaviour. Wessenschaftliche Mitteilungen aus dem Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, 4: 175-183.

Duft, J.F. and R.K. Moseley (1989). Alpine Wildflowers of the Rocky Mountains. Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 200.

Dunbar, G.A. (1971). The effectiveness of some herbaceous species for montane and subalpine revegetation. Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society, 18: 48-57.

Dunn, P.O. and D.W. Winkler (1999). Climate change has affected the breeding date of tree swallows throughout North America. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 266: 2487-2490.

Dunwiddie, P.W. (1986). A 6000-year record of forest history on Mount Rainier, Washington.Ecology, 67(1): 58-68.

Eckhardt, R.C. (1980). The adaptive syndromes of two guilds of insectivorous birds in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Ecological Monographs, 49(2): 129-149.

Edwards, J.S. and P.C. Banko (1976). Arthropod fallout and nutrient transport: A quantitative study of Alaskan snowpatches. Arctic and Alpine Research, 8(3): 237-245.

Egan, B. (1997). The ecology of the Mountain Hemlock Zone., B.C. Ministry of Forests: Victoria.

Ehrlich, P.R., et al. (1972). Weather and the “regulation” of subalpine populations. Ecology, 53(2): 243-247.

Elkington, T.T., et al. (1973). Biological flora of the British Isles. Journal of Ecology, 61: 601-615.

Ellison, L.N. (1973). Seasonal social organization and movements of Spruce Grouse. Condor, 75(3): 375-385.

Ellison, L.N. and R.B. Weeden (1979). Seasonal and local weights of Alaskan Spruce Grouse. Journal of Wildlife Management, 43(1): 176-183.

Environment_Canada (1997). Science and the Environment Bulletin, in Science and the Environment Bulletin. p. 8pp.

Environment_Canada (2000). Sensitivities to climate change in Canada.: Ottawa. p. 29.

EnvironmentCanada (2000). High-altitude POPs and alpine predators, in Science and the Environment Bulletin. p. 1.

Festa-Bianchet, M. (1991). The social system of bighorn sheep: grouping patterns, kinship and dominance rank. Animal Behavior, 42: 71-82.

Festa-Bianchet, M., M. Urquhart, and K.G. Smith (1994). Mountain goat recruitment: kid production and survival to breeding age. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72: 22-27.

Finch, D. (1989). Habitat use and habitat overlap of riparian birds in three elevational zones.Ecology, 70(4): 866-880.

Finch, D. and R. Fletch Silvicultural effects on birds in the rockies.

Fitzgerald, B. (1977). Weasel predation on a cyclic population of the Montane Vole (Microtus montanus) in California. Journal of Animal Ecology, 46: 367-397.

Fleischer, R.C. and R.F. Johnston (1984). The relationships between winter climate and selection on body size of House Sparrows. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62(3): 405-410.

Fleming, R.S. (1973). Bird communities above treeline: a comparison of temperate and equatorial mountain faunas, in Department of Zoology., University of Washington. p. 130.

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