This bibliography has been compiled by Kathy Martin, assisted by interns (Science Horizons, NSERC Undergraduate Assistants). Please e-mail any additions to the bibliography to Marty.
Andersen, D.C. and K.B. Armitage (1976). Caloric content of Rocky Mountain subalpine and alpine plants. Journal of Range Management, 29(4): 344-345.
Arno, S.F. and R.P. Hammerley (1984). General Factors: Topography, in Timberline – Mountain and Arctic forest frontiers, S.F. Arno and R.P. Hammerley, Editors. The Mountaineers: Seattle. p. 24-56.
Baker, W.L. (1983). Alpine vegetation of Wheeler Peak, New Mexico, U.S.A.: Gradient analysis, classification and biogeography. Arctic and Alpine Research, 15(2): 223-240.
Billings, W.D. (1989). Alpine Vegetation, in Terrestrial Vegetation of North America, W.D. Billings and R.K. Peet, Editors. Paragon Books. p. 392-420.
Billings, W.D. and L.C. Bliss (1959). An alpine snowbank environment and its effects on vegetation, plant development, and productivity. Ecology, 40(3): 388-397.
Billings, W.D. and H.A. Mooney (1968). The ecology of arctic and alpine plants. Biological Review, 43: 481-529.
Bliss, L.C. (1956). A comparison of plant development in microenvironments of arctic and alpine tundras. Ecological Monographs, 26(4): 303-337.
Brett, R.B., K. Klinka, and H. Qian (1998). Classification of High-Elevation Non-Forested Plant Communities in Coastal British Columbia., Forest Science Dept., University of British Columbia: Vancouver. p. 58.
Brink, B. and K. Fletcher (1994). Serpentine Soils. Cordillera,: 16-19.
Chambers, J.C. (1995). Relationships between seed fates and seedling establishment in an alpine ecosystem. Ecology, 76(7): 2124-2133.
Curtin, C.G. (1995). Can montane landscapes recover from human disturbance? Long-term evidence from disturbed subalpine communities. Biological Conservation, 74: 49-55.
Cwynar, L.C. (1987). Fire and the forest history of the North Cascade range. Ecology, 68(4): 791-802.
Daubenmire, R. (1954). Alpine timberlines in the Americas and their interpretation. Butler University Botanical Studies, 11: 119-136.
Day, R.J. (1972). Stand structure, succession, and use of southern Alberta’s Rocky Mountain forest.Ecology, 53(3): 472-477.
Douglas, G.W. and L.C. Bliss (1977). Alpine and high subalpine plant communities of the North Cascades Range, Washington and British Columbia. Ecological Monographs, 47: 113-150.
Duft, J.F. and R.K. Moseley (1989). Alpine Wildflowers of the Rocky Mountains. Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 200.
Dunbar, G.A. (1971). The effectiveness of some herbaceous species for montane and subalpine revegetation. Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society, 18: 48-57.
Dunwiddie, P.W. (1986). A 6000-year record of forest history on Mount Rainier, Washington.Ecology, 67(1): 58-68.
Egan, B. (1997). The ecology of the Mountain Hemlock Zone., B.C. Ministry of Forests: Victoria.
Elkington, T.T., et al. (1973). Biological flora of the British Isles. Journal of Ecology, 61: 601-615.
Frank, D.A. and R. Del Moral (1986). Thirty-five years of secondary succession in a Festuca viridula – Lupinus latifolius dominated meadow at Sunrise, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington.Canadian Journal of Botany, 64: 1232-1236.
Grabherr, G., M. Gottfried, and G. Pauli (1994). Climate effects on mountain plants. Nature, 369: 448.
Haase, R. (1987). An alpine vegetation map of Caribou Lake Valley and Forth of July Valley, Front Range, Colorado, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 19(1): 1-10.
Hadley, K.S. (1987). Vascular alpine plant distributions within the Central and Southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 19(3): 242-251.
Haslett, J.R. (1990). Geographic information systems: a new approach to habitat definition and the study of distributions. TREE, 5: 214-218.
Helm, D. (1982). Multivariate analysis of alpine snow-patch vegetation cover near Milner Pass, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 14(2): 87-95.
Houston, D.B. and V. Stevens (1988). Resource limitation in mountain goats: a test by experimental cropping. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66: 228-238.
Hrapko, J.O. and G.H. La Roi (1978). The alpine tundra vegetation of Signal Mountain, Jasper National Park. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56(3): 309-332.
Huggard, D.J. (1999). Static life-table analysis of fall rates of subalpine fir snags. Ecological Applications, 9(3): 1009-1016.
Huggard, D.J., W. Klenner, and A. Vyse (1998). Windthrow following four harvest treatments in an Engelmann spruce – subalpine fir forest in southern interior British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 29: 1547-1556.
Inouye, D.W. and A.D. McGuire (1991). Effects of snowpack on timing and abundance of flowering in Delphinium nelsonii (Ranunculaceae): implications for climate change. American Journal of Botany, 78(7): 997-1001.
Isard, S.A. and M.J. Belding (1989). Evapotranspiration from the alpine tundra of Colorado, U.S.A.Arctic and Alpine Research, 21(1): 71-82.
Johnson, E.A. and C.P.S. Larsen (1991). Climatically induced change in fire frequency in the southern Canadian Rockies. Ecology, 72(1): 194-201.
Johnson, P.L. and W.D. Billings (1962). The alpine vegetation of the beartooth plateau in relation to cryopedogenic processes and patterns. Ecological Monographs, 32: 105-135.
Kennedy, S.T., W.A. Berg, and E.M. Barrau (1978).Management approaches to nitrogen deficiency in revegetation of subalpine disturbances. inProceedings: high altitude revegetation workshop No. 3, Colorado, State University Information Services No. 28. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kimball, S.L., B.D. Bennett, and F.B. Salisbury (1973). The growth and development of montane species at near-freezing temperatures. Ecology, 54(1): 168-173.
Korner, C. (1999). Alpine Plant Life: functional plant ecology of high mountain ecosystems. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 329.
Kudo, G. (1991). Effects of snow-free period on the phenology of alpine plants inhabiting snow patches. Arctic and Alpine Research, 23(4): 436-443.
Kudo, G. (1992). Effect of snow-free duration on leaf life-span of four alpine plant species. Canadian Journal of Botany, 70: 1684-1688.
Lanner, R.M. (1988). Dependence of great basin bristlecone pine on Clark’s Nutcracker for regeneration at high elevations. Arctic and Alpine Research, 20(3): 358-362.
Lertzman, K.P. (1992). Patterns of gap-phase replacement in a subalpine, old-growth forest.Ecology, 73: 657.
Lertzman, K.P. and C.J. Krebs (1991). Gap-phase structure of a subalpine old-growth forest.Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 21: 1730-1741.
Little, R.L., D.L. Peterson, and L.L. Conquest (1994). Regeneration of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) following fire: effects of climate and other factors. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 24: 934-944.
MacMahon, J.A. and D.C. Andersen (1982). Subalpine forests: a world perspective with emphasis on western North America. Progress in Physical Geography, 6: 368-425.
Mani, M.S. (1968). Ecological specializations of high altitude insects, in Ecology and biogeography of high altitude insects, M.S. Mani, Editor. The Hague, Dr. W. Junk. p. 51-74.
Martin, K. (2001). Wildlife communities of alpine and subalpine habitats, in Wildlife-habitat relationships in Oregon and Washington, D. Johnson and T.A. O’Neil, Editors. Oregon University Press. p. 239-260.
May, T.A. (1975). Seasonal foods, energy content of alpine tundra plants, and nutrient availability in willows. In Physiological ecology of white-tailed ptarmigan in Colorado., University of Colorado.
McKnight, D.M., B.A. Kimball, and K.E. Bencala (1988). Iron photoreduction and oxidation in an acidic mountain stream. Science, 240: 637-639.
Odasso, M. and P. De Franceschi (1998). Habitat of the rock partridge(Alectoris graeca) in the province of Trento (Italy), in [Habitat della coturnice (Alectoris graeca) in Trentino: aspetti vegetazionali]., Centro di Ecologia Alpina.
Pedrotti, F. (1995). Botanical research on the grasslands of the Monte Bondone (Trento), in [Riceche botanche sulle praterie del Monte Bondone (Tento)]., Centro di Ecologia Alpina.
Peet, R.K. (1989). Forests of the Rocky Mountains, in Terrestrial Vegetation of North America, W.D. Billings and R.K. Peet, Editors. Paragon Books. p. 64-101.
Riebesell, J.F. (1982). Arctic-alpine plants on mountaintops: agreement with island biogeography theory. The American Naturalist, 119(5): 657-674.
Rochefort, M.R. and D.L. Peterson (1996). Temporal and spatial distribution of trees in subalpine meadows of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 28(1): 52-59.
Rochefort, R.M. and S.T. Gibbons (1992). Mending the Meadow. High altitude meadow restoration in Mount Rainier National Park. Restoration and Management Notes, 10(2): 120-126.
Rochefort, R.M., et al. (1994). Changes in sub-alpine tree distribution in western North America: a review of climatic and other causal factors. The Holocene, 4(1): 89-100.
Romme, W.H. and M.G. Turner (1991). Implications of global climate change for biogeographic patterns in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Conservation Biology, 5: 373-386.
Schimpf, D.J., J.A. Henderson, and J.A. MacMahon (1980). Some aspects of succession in the Spruce-fir forest zone of northern Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist, 40(1): 1-26.
Sharrow, S.H. and D.E. Kuntz (1999). Plant response to defoliation in a subalpine green fescue community. Journal of Range Management, 52(2): 174-180.
Stathers, R.J., et al. (2001). Microclimate Studies on a Group Selection Silvicultural System in a High-Elevation ESSFwc3 Forest in the Cariboo Forest Region., Ministry of Forests. p. 29.
Stutz, H.P. and J.B. Mitton (1988). Genetic variation in Engelmann spruce associated with variation in soil moisture. Arctic and Alpine Research, 20(4): 461-465.
Thompson, D.B.A. and A. Brown (1992). Biodiversity in montane Britain: habitat variation, vegetation diversity and some objectives for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 1: 179-208.
Thompson, D.B.A., et al. (1995). Upland heather moorland in Great Britain: a review of international importance, vegetation change and some objectives for nature conservation. Biological Conservation, 71: 163-178.
Thomson, J.D., et al. (1996). Untangling multiple factors in spatial distributions: lilies, gophers, and rocks. Ecology, 77(6): 1698-1715.
Thorn, C.E. (1982). Gopher disturbance: Its variability by Braun-Blanquet vegetation units in the Niwot Ridge alpine tundra zone, Colorado Front Range, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 14(1): 45-51.
Tranquillini, W. (1979). Physiological Ecology of the Alpine Timberline: Tree Existence at High Altitudes with Special Reference to the European Alps (Ecological Studies, 31). New York and Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Verbeek, N.A.M. and R. Boasson (1984). Local alteration of alpine calcicolous vegetation by birds: Do the birds create hummocks? Arctic and Alpine Research, 16(3): 337-341.
Walker, M.D., et al. (1994). Effects of interannual climate variation on aboveground phytomass in alpine vegetation. 75(2): 393-408.
Whipple, S.A. and R.L. Dix (1979). Age Structure and Successional Dynamics of a Colorado Subalpine Forest. The American Midland Naturalist, 101(1): 142-158.
Zuck, R.H., L.F. Brown, and F. Ronco (1976).Regeneration of forest lands at high elevations in the central Rocky Mountains. in Proceedings: high altitude revegetation workshop No. 2, Colorado, State University Information Series No. 21.