By Topic: Birds

This bibliography has been compiled by Kathy Martin, assisted by interns (Science Horizons, NSERC Undergraduate Assistants). Please e-mail any additions to the bibliography to Marty.

Airola, D.A. and R.H. Barrett (1985). Foraging and habitat relationships of insect-gleaning birds in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest. Condor, 87: 205-216.

Amato, S. and P. Pedrini (1995). Migrations of birds across the Alpine areas (Trentino): activity carried on in 1993, in Le migrazioni degli uccelli attraverso le Alpi centro-meridionali (Trentino): attività svolta nel 1993., Centro di Ecologia Alpina.

Ammon, E.M. (1995). Reproductive strategies and factors determining nest success in subalpine ground-nesting passerines., University of Colorado.

Andersen, R., H.C. Pedersen, and J.B. Steen (1986). Annual variation in movements of sub-alpine hatched Willow Ptarmigan Lagopus l. lagopus broods in Central Norway. Ornis Scandinavica, 17(2): 180-182.

Andreev, A.V. (1999). Energetics and survival of birds in extreme environments. Ostrich, 1: 13-22.

Antor, R.J. (1995). The importance of arthropod fallout for the foraging of high-alpine birds. Journal of Avian Biology, 26(1): 81-85.

Artiss, T., W.M. Hochachka, and K. Martin (1999). Female foraging and male vigilance in white-tailed ptarmigan (Ptarmigan leucurus ): opportunism or behavioural coordination? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 46: 429-434.

Artiss, T. and K. Martin (1995). Male vigilance in white-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucurus: mate guarding or predator detection? Animal Behavior, 49: 1249-1258.

Artiss, T.A. (1992). Male vigilance and mate guarding in the White-Tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus)., University of Toronto.

Aulie, A.S., J.B. (1976). Thermoregulation and muscular development in cold exposed Willow Ptarmigan chicks (Lagopus lagopus L.). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 55: 291-293.

Badyaev, A.V. (1997). Avian life history variation along altitudinal gradients: an example with cardueline finches. Oecologia, 111: 365-374.

Badyaev, A.V. (1997). Altitudinal variation in sexual dimorphism: a new pattern and alternative hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology, 8(6): 675-690.

Bailey, F.M. (1923). Birds recorded from the Santa Rita Mountains in southern Arizona. Pacific Coast Avifauna, 15.

Banfield, A.W.F. (1953). Notes on the birds of Kluane Game Sanctuary, Yukon Territory. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 67: 177-178.

Bears, H. (2002). How and Why a Small Songbird, the Oregon Junco (juncus hyemalis oregenus), Breeds Over a Steep Elevation Gradient: Shifting Life-Histories, Adaptations, and Costs and Benefits with Elevation, in Zoology., University of British Columbia: Vancouver. p. 59.

Bears, H., J.N.M. Smith, and J.C. Wingfield (2002). Adrenocortical Sensitivity in Oregon Juncos (Juncus hyemalis oregonus) Breeding in Low and High Elevation Habitat. Submitted to Ecoscience,: 25.

Beedy, E.C. (1981). Bird communities and forest structure in the Sierra Nevada of California.Condor, 83(2): 97-105.

Behle, W.H. (Distribution and variation of the Horned Larks (Otocoris alpestris) of western North America. University of California Publications in Zoology.

Behle, W.H. and J. Ghiselin (1958). Additional data on the birds of the Uinta Mountains and basin of northeastern Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist, 18(1): 1-25.

Bernard-Laurent, A. and J.L. Laurent (1984). Method of censusing rock ptarmigan in spring; applications in the maritime alps. [Methode de recensement des perdrix bartavelles (Alectoris graeca saxatilis Bechstein 1805) au printemps; applications dans les alpes-maritimes]. Giber Faune Sauvage, (4): 69-85.

Böhm, C. and A. Landmann (1995). Nest-site selection, and nest construction in the water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). Journal für Ornithologie, 136(1): 1-16.

Bollmann, K. and H.-U. Reyer (2001). Reproductive success of water pipits in an alpine environment. The Condor, 103: 510-520.

Booth, E.S. (1952). Ecological distribution of the birds of the Blue Mountains region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon, in Walla Walla College publications of the Department of Biological Sciences and the Biological Station., Walla Walla College. p. 65-107.

Braun, C., et al. (1974). Characteristics and Migration of Wintering Populations of Colorado White-tailed Ptarmigan., State of Colorado, Division of Wildlife.

Braun, C.E. (1969). Population dynamics, habitat and movements of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado, in Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology., Colorado State University: Fort Collins. p. 189 pp.

Braun, C.E. (1971). Habitat requirements of Colorado White-tailed Ptarmigan. Proceedings of the Western Association State Game Fish Commission, 51: 1-9.

Braun, C.E. (1980). Alpine bird communities of western North America: implications for management and research, in Workshop Proceedings: Management of western forests and grasslands for nongame birds., R.M. DeGraff and N.G. Tilghman, Editors. U.S.D.A. Forest Service General Technical Report INT-86. p. 280-291.

Braun, C.E. (1984). Biological investigations of white-tailed ptarmigan in Colorado, U.S.A.- a review, in 3rd International Symposium of the world Pheasant Association, P.J. Hudson and T.W.I. Lovel, Editors: York, U. K. p. 131-147.

Braun, C.E., R.W. Hoffman, and G.E. Rogers (1976). Wintering areas and winter ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado., Colorado Division of Wildlife.

Braun, C.E., K. Martin, and L.A. Robb (1993). White-tailed Ptarmigan, in The Birds of North America, A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Editors. The Academy of Natural Sciences; The American Ornithologists Union: Philadelphia; Washington, DC. p. 24.

Braun, C.E. and T.A. May (1972).Colorado alpine tundra avifaunal investigations, 1966-71. in 1972 Tundra Biome Symposium. Lake Wilderness Center, University of Washington.

Braun, C.E., D.H. Nish, and K.M. Giesen (1978). Release and establishment of white-tailed ptarmigan in Utah. The Southwestern Naturalist, 23(4): 661-668.

Braun, C.E. and C.E. Rogers (1967). Determination of age and sex of the southern White-tailed Ptarmigan. 54.

Braun, C.E. and G.E. Rogers (1971). The White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado., State of Colorado, Division of Game, Fish and Parks.

Braun, C.E. and R.K. Schmidt (1971).Effects of snow and wind on wintering populations of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado. in Proc. Snow and Ice Symp. Iowa State Univerisity, Ames.

Brenot, J.F. and C. Novoa (1999). Demographic study of Rock Ptarmigan in the Pyrenees [Etude demographique du lagopede alpin dans les Pyrenees]., Office National de la Chasse, France. p. 19 pp.

Bruderer, B. (1982). Do migrating birds fly along straight lines?, in Avian Migration, F.a.W. Papi, H.G., Editor. Springer: Heidelberg. p. 3-14.

Bullard, R.W. (1972). Vertebrates at Altitudes, in Physiological Adaptations: Desert and Mountain, M.K. Yousef, S.M. Horvath, and R.W. Bullard, Editors. Academic Press, Inc: New York. p. 209-225.

Byrkjedal, I. (1980). Nest predation in relation to snow cover – a possible factor influencing the start of breeding in shore birds. Ornis Scandinavica, 11: 249-252.

Caizergues, A. and L.N. Ellison (2000). Age-specific reproductive performance of Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix females. Bird Study, 47: 344-351.

Calder, W.A. (1987). Southbound through Colorado: Migration of Rufous Hummingbirds. National Geographic Research, 3(1): 40-51.

Campbell, V.E. (1995). Patterns of nest predation and nest predator abundance in a fragmented englemann spruce/subalpine fir forest., British Coumbia. p. 42.

Carey, C. (1980). Adaptation of the avian egg to high altitude. American Zoologist, 20: 449-459.

Carey, C. (1986). Avian Reproduction in Cold Climates. Proc. 19th Int. Ornithol. Congr., 14: 2708-2715.

Carey, C. and W.R. Dawson Symposium 48. Adaptations of Birds to Cold Climates.

Carey, C., et al. (1989). Variation in eggshell characteristics and gas exchange of montane and lowland coot eggs. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 159: 389-400.

Carey, C. and K. Martin (1991). Physiological properties of montane and lowland ptarmigan embryos. American Zoologist, 31: 73A.

Carey, C. and K. Martin (1997). Physiological ecology of incubation of ptarmigan eggs at high and low altitudes. Wildlife Biology, 3(3/4): 211-218.

Carey, C. and M.L. Morton (1976). Aspects of circulatory physiology of montane and lowland birds.Comparative Biochemical Physiology, 54: 61-74.

Carey, C., et al. (1982). Avian reproduction over an altitudinal gradient: incubation period, hatchling mass, and embryonic oxygen consumption.The Auk, 99(4): 710-718.

Casazza, M.L., et al. (2000). Development of reliable population indices for Band-tailed Pigeons., USGS.

Cattadori, I.M. and P.J. Hudson (1999). Temporal dynamics of grouse populations at the southern edge of their distribution. Ecography, 22: 374-383.

Choate, T.S. (1963). Habitat and population dynamics of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management, 27: 684-699.

Choate, T.S. (1963). Ecology and population dynamics of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in Glacier National Park, Montana., Montana State University, Missoula, Montana.

Clarke, C.H.D. and I.M. Cowan (1945). Birds of Banff National Park, Alberta. The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 59: 83-103.

Clarke, J.A. (1988).Foraging strategies of white-tailed ptarmigan. in Animal Behaviour Society Meeting. Missaula, Montana.

Clarke, J.A. and R.E. Johnson (1992). The influence of spring snowpack on white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) breeding success, spacing and movement in the Sierra Nevada. Condor, 94: 622-627.

Clemens, D.T. (1988). Ventilation and oxygen consumption in rosy finches and house finches at sea level and high altitude. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 158: 57-66.

Cody, M.L. (1981). Habitat selection in birds: the roles of vegetation structure, competitors, and productivity. Bioscience, 31(2): 107-113.

Cody, M.L. (1985). Habitat selection in grassland and open-country birds, in Habitat Selection in Birds, M.L. Cody, Editor. Academic Press, Inc. (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers): London. p. 191-226.

Cooper, J.M. (1994). Mobbing of a Common Raven by migrant Rosy-finches. British Columbia Birds, 4: 13-14.

Cotter, R.C. (1999). The reproductive biology of Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) in the central Canadian Arctic. Arctic, 52(1): 23-32.

Daily, G.C., P.R. Ehrlich, and N.M. Haddad (1993). Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 90: 592-594.

De Franceschi, P. and M. Odasso (1998). Status of the rock partridge in two sample areas of the southern Trentino and management proposals, in [Status della coturnice in due aree campione del Trentino meridionale e proposte di gestione]., Centro di Ecologia Alpina.

Demaria, T. (1997). Microhabitat selection of white-tailed ptarmigan on vancouver island, B.C. Canada., Coastal Carolina University. p. 9.

DeSante, D.F. (1990). The role of recruitment in the dynamics of a Sierran subalpine bird community. The American Naturalist, 136(4): 429-445.

DeWolfe, B.B., G.C. West, and L.J. Peyton (1973). The spring migration of Gambel’s Sparrows through southern Yukon Territory. The Condor, 75(1): 43-59.

Dragon, S., et al. (1999). Effect of high altitude and in vivo adenosine/beta-adrenergic receptor blockade on ATP and 2,3BPG concentrations in red blood cells of avian embryos. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 202: 2787-2795.

Drews, F., et al. (1998). Diurnal behaviour budget of Ptarmigans Lagopus mutus helveticus (Thienemann 1829) in their summer habitat (Hohe Tauern, Austria) with remarks on anti-predator behaviour. Wessenschaftliche Mitteilungen aus dem Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, 4: 175-183.

Eckhardt, R.C. (1980). The adaptive syndromes of two guilds of insectivorous birds in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Ecological Monographs, 49(2): 129-149.

Edwards, J.S. and P.C. Banko (1976). Arthropod fallout and nutrient transport: A quantitative study of Alaskan snowpatches. Arctic and Alpine Research, 8(3): 237-245.

Finch, D. (1989). Habitat use and habitat overlap of riparian birds in three elevational zones.Ecology, 70(4): 866-880.

Finch, D. and R. Fletch Silvicultural effects on birds in the rockies.

Fleming, R.S. (1973). Bird communities above treeline: a comparison of temperate and equatorial mountain faunas, in Department of Zoology., University of Washington. p. 130.

Franzreb, K.E. (1984). Foraging habits of Ruby-crowned and Golden-crowned Kinglets in an Arizona montane forest. Condor, 86(2): 139-145.

Frederick, G.P. (1992). Habitat use and population characteristics of the white-tailed ptarmigan in the sierra nevada, california. Condor, 94: 889-902.

French, N.R. (1959). Life history of the Black Rosy Finch. Auk, 76: 159-180.

Galbraith, H., et al. (1993). Diet and habitat use of the dotterel Charadrius morinellus in Scotland.Ibis, 135: 148-155.

Galbraith, H., et al. (1993). Numbers and distribution of dotterel Charadrius morinellus breeding in Great Britain. Bird Study, 40: 161-169.

Gass, C.L. and K.P. Lertzman (1980). Capricious mountain weather: a driving variable in hummingbird territorial dynamics. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 58(11): 1964-1968.

Gass, C.L. and G.D. Sutherland (1985). Specialization by territorial hummingbirds on experimentally enriched patches of flowers: energetic profitability and learning. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63: 2125-2133.

Giesen, K.M. (1977). Mortality and dispersal of juvenile White-tailed Ptarmigan., Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Giesen, K.M. and C.E. Braun (1979). Renesting of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado. Condor, 81(2): 217-218.

Giesen, K.M. and C.E. Braun (1979). Nesting behavior of female White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado.Condor, 81(2): 215-217.

Giesen, K.M. and C.E. Braun (1992). Winter home range and habitat characteristics of White-Tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado. Wilson Bulletin, 104(2): 263-272.

Giesen, K.M. and C.E. Braun (1992). Natal dispersal and recruitment of juvenile white-tailed ptarmigan in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management, 57(1): 72-77.

Giesen, K.M., C.E. Braun, and T.A. May (1980). Reproduction and nest-site selection by White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado. Wilson Bulletin, 92(2): 188-199.

Graves, G.R. (1985). Elevational correlates of speciation and intraspecific variation in plumage of andean forest birds. The Auk, 102: 556-579.

Green, G.H., J.J.D. Greenwood, and C.J. Lloyd (1977). The influence of snow condition on the date of breeding of wading birds in north-east Greenland. Journal of Zoology, 183: 311-328.

Greenberg, R., T. Keeler-Wolf, and V. Keeler-Wolf (1974). Wood Warbler populations in the Yolla Bolly Mountains of California. Western Birds, 5: 81-90.

Gruys, R.C. (1991). Autumn and winter movements and mortality of willow ptarmigan at Chilkat Pass, B.C., University of Alberta.

Gutzwiller, K.J. and S.H. Anderson (1999). Spatial Extent of Human-Intrusion effects on subalpine bird distributions. The Condor, 101: 378-389.

Hand, R.L. (1941). Birds of the St. Joe National Forest, Idaho. The Condor, 43: 220-232.

Hendricks, P. (1981). Observations on a winter roost of Rosy Finches in Montana. Journal of Field Ornithology, 52(3): 235-236.

Hendricks, P. (1987). Habitat use by nesting Water Pipits (Anthus spinoletta): A test of the snowfield hypothesis. Arctic and Alpine Research, 19(3): 313-320.

Hendricks, P. and C.J. Norment (1986). Additions to the alpine avifauna of the Beartooth Mountains.The Murrelet, 67: 90-92.

Hendricks, P. and J.E. Swenson (1983). Dynamics of the winter distribution of rosy finches, Leucosticte arctoa, in Montana. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 97(3): 307-310.

Henny, C.J. and G.L. Brady (1994). Partial migration and wintering localities of American Kestrels nesting in the Pacific Northwest. Northwestern Naturalist, 75: 37-43.

Herzog, P.W. (1977). Summer habitat use by white-tailed ptarmigan in southwestern Alberta.Canadian Field-Naturalist, 91(4): 367-371.

Herzog, P.W. (1980). Winter habitat use by white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 94(2): 159-162.

Hoffman, R.W. and C.E. Braun (1975). Migration of a wintering population of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management, 39: 485-490.

Hoffman, R.W. and C.E. Braun (1977). Characteristics of a wintering population of White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado. Wilson Bulletin, 89(1): 107-115.

Hoffman, S.W., J.P. Smith, and J.A. Gessaman (1990). Size of fall-migrant accipiters from the Goshute Mountains of Nevada. Journal of Field Ornithology, 61(2): 201-211.

Hoffmann, R.S. (1974). Terrestrial Vertebrates, in Arctic and Alpine Environments, J.D. Ives and R.D. Barry, Editors. Methuen: London.

Huggard, D.J. (1999). Winter use of subalpine forest by spruce grouse: effects of habitat features, edges and harvest treatments. p. 37.

Hutto, R.L. (1985). Seasonal changes in the habitat distribution of transient insectivorous birds in Southeastern Arizona: competition mediated? The Auk, 102: 120-132.

Inskipp, T.P. and C. Inskipp (1995). A guide to the birds of Nepal. 1 ed: Croom Helm Ltd. 384.

Jarvinen, A. (1995). Effects of climate change on mountain bird populations, in Potential ecological impacts of climate change in the Alps and Fennoscandian mountains, A. Guisan, Editor. Conservatoire et jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève: Genève. p. 73-74.

Jenkins, D. and A. Watson (1970). Population control in Red Grouse and Rock Ptarmigan in Scotland. Finnish Game Research, 30: 121-141.

Johnson, N.K. (1965). The breeding avifaunas of the sheep and spring ranges in southern Nevada.Condor, 67(2): 93-124.

Johnson, N.K. (1974). Montane avifaunas of southern Nevada: historical change in species composition. Condor, 76(3): 334-337.

Johnson, R.E. (1965). Reproductive activities of Rosy Finches, with special reference to Montana.The Auk, 82: 190-205.

Johnson, R.E. (1966). Alpine birds of the Little Belt Mountains, Montana. Wilson Bulletin, 78(2): 225-227.

Johnson, R.E. (1968). Temperature regulation in the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus).Comparative Biochemical Physiology, 24: 1003-1014.

Johnson, R.E. (1977). Seasonal variation in the genus Leucosticte in North America. Condor, 79: 76-86.

Johnson, R.E. (1983). Nesting biology of the Rosy Finch on the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Condor, 85: 447-452.

Joy, S.M., et al. (1994). Feeding ecology of Sharp-shinned Hawks nesting in deciduous and coniferous forests in Colorado. Condor, 96(2): 455-467.

Kendeigh, S.C. and B.J. Fawver (1981). Breeding bird populations in the Great Smokey Mountains, Tennessee and North Carolina. Wilson Bulletin, 93(2): 218-242.

King, D.G. (1971). The ecology and population dynamics of blue grouse in the sub-alpine., University of British Columbia, Vancouver. p. 139.

King, D.G. (1973). Feedings habits of blue grouse in the sub-alpine. Syesis, 6: 121-125.

King, J.S. and C.E. Braun (1970). Fall foods of sub-alpine populations of blue grouse in Colorado.Journal of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science, 6.

Kinley, T.A. and N.J. Newhouse (1997). Relationship of riparian reserve zone width to bird density and diversity in southeastern British Columbia. Northwest Science, 71(2): 75-86.

Knopf, F.L. and B.J. Miller (1994). Charadrius monanus – Montane, grassland, or bare-ground plover? The Auk, 111(2): 504-506.

Kollinski, C. and A. Landmann (1996). Altitudinal distribution of male Black Redstarts: are there age-dependent patterns? Bird Study, 43: 103-107.

Krementz, D.G. and P. Hanford (1984). Does avian clutch size increase with altitude? Oikos, 43(2): 256-259.

Kuban, J.F. and R.L. Neill (1980). Feeding ecology of hummingbirds in the highlands of the Chisos Mountains, Texas. Condor, 82: 180-185.

Landmann, A. and C. Stecher (1994). Niche segregation and seasonal dynamics in the subalpine-alpine transition zone: bird communities in the krummholz belt of the northern Calcareous Alps.Journal für Ornithologie, 135: 274.

Landmann, A. and N. Winding (1993). Niche segregation in high-altitude Himalayan chats (Aves, Turdidae) : does morphology match ecology? Oecologia, 95: 506-519.

Landmann, A. and N. Winding (1995). Guild organization and morphology of high-altitude granivorous and insectivorous birds: convergent evolution in an extreme environment. Oikos, 73(2): 237-250.

Landmann, A. and N. Winding (1995). Adaptive radiation and resource partitioning in Himalayan high-altitude finches. Zoology, 99: 8-20.

Lanner, R.M. (1988). Dependence of great basin bristlecone pine on Clark’s Nutcracker for regeneration at high elevations. Arctic and Alpine Research, 20(3): 358-362.

Larison, J.R. (Multiple-metal stress in an avian herbivore: The reproductive and physiological effects of chronic exposure to trace metals.: Ithaca, NY. p. 7.

Larison, J.R., et al. (2000). Cadmium toxicity among wildlife in the Colorado Rocky Mountains.Nature, 406: 181-183.

Leck, C.F. (1968). A feeding congregation of local and migratory birds in the mountains of Panama.Bird-Banding, 39: 318.

Lentz, J.E. (1993). Breeding birds of four isolated mountains in southern California. Western Birds, 24(4): 201-234.

Li, P. and T.E. Martin (1991). Nest-site selection and nesting success of cavity-nesting birds in high elevation forest drainages. The Auk, 108: 405-418.

Manuwal, D.A., et al. (1987). Summer birds of the upper subalpine zone of Mount Adams, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens, Washington. Northwest Science, 61(2): 82-92.

Marchand, P.J. (1987). Animals and the Winter Environment, in Life in the Cold. University Press New England. p. 95-125.

Marti, C.D. and C.E. Braun (1975). Use of tundra habitats by Prairie Falcons in Colorado. Condor, 77(2): 213-214.

Martin, K. (2001). Wildlife communities of alpine and subalpine habitats, in Wildlife-habitat relationships in Oregon and Washington, D. Johnson and T.A. O’Neil, Editors. Oregon University Press. p. 239-260.

Martin, K., S.J. Hannon, and S. Lord (1990). Female-female aggression in White-tailed Ptarmigan during the pre-incubation period. Wilson Bulletin, 102(3): 532-536.

Martin, K., R.F. Holt, and D.W. Thomas (1993). Getting by on High: ecological energetics of arctic and alpine grouse, in Life in the Cold: Ecological, Physiological, and Molecular Mechanisms., C. Carey, et al., Editors. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado. p. 33-41.

Martin, K., P.B. Stacey, and C.E. Braun (2000). Recruitment, dispersal, and demographic rescue in spatially-structured white-tailed ptarmigan populations. Condor, 102: 503-516.

May, T. and C.E. Braun (1972).Weight dynamics of free-living white-tailed ptarmigan in Colorado. inJoint Meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science. Fort Collins, Colorado.

May, T.A. (1975). Physiological ecology of White-tailed Ptarmigan., Colorado State University.

May, T.A. and C.A. Braun (1973). Gizzard stones from adult white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in Colorado. Arctic and Alpine Research, 5: 49-57.

May, T.A. and C.E. Braun (1972). Seasonal foods of adult White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado.Journal of Wildlife Management, 36: 1180-1186.

McNair, D.B. (1988). Review of breeding records of Red Crossbill and Pine Siskin in the southern Appalachian Mountains and adjacent regions. The Migrant, 59(4): 105-113.

Medin, D.E. (1987). Breeding birds of an alpine habitat in the southern Snake Range, Nevada.Western Birds, 18: 163-168.

Meriggi, A., et al. (1998). Factors affecting the presence and population dynamics of Rock Partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis) in Trentino (Northern Italy), in [Fattori influenzanti la presenza e la dinamica di popolazione della coturnice (Alectoris graeca saxatilis) in Trentino]., Centro di Ecologia Alpina.

Mewaldt, L.R. (1956). Nesting behavior of the Clark Nutcracker. Condor, 58(1): 3-23.

Miller, A.H. (1939). Birds of the alpine zone of Mount Shasta, California. Condor, 41: 218-219.

Moreno, J., A. Carlson, and R.V. Alatalo (1988). Winter Energetics of coniferous forest tits paridae in the north: the implications of body size.Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 2(2): 163-170.

Morrison, M.L., et al. (1987). Composition and temporal variation of flocks in the Sierra Nevada.Condor, 89(4): 739-745.

Morton, M.L. (1978). Snow conditions and the onset of breeding in the Mountain White-crowned Sparrow. Condor, 80(3): 285-289.

Morton, M.L., M.W. Wakamatsu, M.E. Pereyra and G. A. Morton (1991). Postfledgeling dispersal, habitat imprinting, and philopatry in a montane, migratory sparrow. Ornis Scandinavica, 22: 98-106.

Morton, M.L. and M.E. Pereyra (1987). Autumn migration of Gambel’s White-crowned Sparrow through Tioga Pass, California. The Journal of Field Ornithology, 58(1): 6-21.

Morton, M.L. and M.E. Pereyra (1994). Autumnal migration departure schedules in Mountain White-crowned Sparrows. Condor, 96(4): 1020-1029.

Nakamura, M. (1995). Effects of supplemental feeding and female age on timing of breeding in the Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris. Ibis, 137: 56-63.

Noon, B.R. (1981). The distribution of an avian guild along a temperate elevational gradient: the importance and expression of competition. Ecological Monographs, 51(1): 105-124.

Norvell, J.R. and P.D. Creighton (1990). Foraging of Horned Larks and Water Pipits in Alpine communities. Journal of Field Ornithology, 61(4): 434-440.

Odasso, M. and P. De Franceschi (1998). Habitat of the rock partridge(Alectoris graeca) in the province of Trento (Italy), in [Habitat della coturnice (Alectoris graeca) in Trentino: aspetti vegetazionali]., Centro di Ecologia Alpina.

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